Cancer research shows that more data are needed on the molecular basis (genes, transcriptomes, proteomes, PTMs) of each cancer; molecular changes during development of a cancer; and treatment.
A new paradigm in medicine - Predictive, Preventive, and Personalized Medicine - clarifies mechanisms, yields an accurate diagnosis and leads to effective treatment. We have a unique molecular environment; cancer develops differently in each person; and we respond individually to drugs. One size does not fit all. PPPM synergy in a cancer study accelerates cancer research and treatment.
If biomarkers are discovered, do they apply to diagnostics, treatment targets/monitoring, or both? Is a biomarker defined on a molecular basis? Does one biomarker unambiguously define a cancer? Does a new diagnostic approach apply to groups of risks and targeted prevention?
High-quality reviews of cancer research demonstrate the power of PPPM, and improve communication among cancer researchers.